Children’s Lives and Rights, Optimise the Health and Well-Being of the Ageing, Ensure Food and Water Security, and Create Universal Access to Communication and Information.
There has been signifcant progress toward the MDGs as outlined in the previous sections. There was a decline in child mortality from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to almost half (48) in 2012, which means almost 18,000 fewer children are dying every day from preventable causes. But many of the goals were not fully achieved for all countries, and these disparities were highlighted in the previous sections as well. Within countries, the poorest continue to receive less than the rich and urban dwellers have better access to health care than rural populations. Gender discrimination and low education levels also contribute to inequities within countries, which are masked by countrywide statistics. Children of educated mothers are more likely to survive. In China and India, girls have a higher mortality rate than boys. These are some of the reasons why a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emerged in the post-2015 era—not to replace but to supplement and enlarge what began as the original MDGs. For instance, while child injury prevention did not make it into the MDGs, at least one injury-related health goal (traffc injury prevention) made it into the “zero” draft of the UN post-2015 SDGs (as of March 2015).
Some countries have already made progress. While many of the inequity fndings suggest insurmountable odds, the experience in Brazil proves otherwise. There is a 5% annual reduction (ahead of target) in child deaths and a drop from 19.9% (1990) to 7.1% (2006) in stunting. This tremendous progress is attributed to a number of economic and health interventions accompanied by a committed political agenda, all of which will be woven into the new post-2015 SDGs, which will be fnalized by the UN General Assembly in 2015.